vendredi 1 novembre 2013

Improving School Climate to Reduce Bullying

There seems to be no shortage of bad news about bullying in Canada these days. Suicides linked to bullying are regularly reported in the news. And we know that most students witness bullying at school, and many are directly involved in bullying sometime during a given school year. 20% of students—one in every five kids in nearly every school—is involved in bullying (as bully, victim, or both) on a weekly basis. This means that many kids' lives are being disrupted and scarred by bullying.

Bullying harms kids in nearly every way imaginable. Minimally, it disrupts their learning, as kids who are victimized tend to avoid school to avoid the bullying. The stress of bullying causes them to suffer anxiety and depression, and it undermines their feelings of safety and connection to school. We now know that children who witness bullying are also at risk for serious negative effects, including school disengagement, school avoidance, and, consequently, lower academic achievement.

Bullying is defined as "a relationship problem that requires relationship solutions" ( This new way of thinking about bullying highlights the complex and powerful relationship dynamics that underpin bullying. And it provides a compelling rationale for the important role that adults—educators, parents, and community leaders—have in intervening in bullying situations and helping all children to learn better ways of relating to each other.

A relational understanding of bullying also connects directly to the growing appreciation of the links between school climate and bullying. School climate is a complex concept, but can generally be separated into four broad dimensions (Cohen, McCabe, Michelli, & Pickeral, 2009):

  1. Physical, social, and emotional safety
  2. Quality of teaching and learning
  3. Relationships across the school community
  4. Well maintained school with adequate space and resources

Améliorer le climat de l'école pour réduire le harcèlement

Il ne semble pas y avoir un manque de mauvaises nouvelles au sujet du harcèlement au Canada ces jours-ci. On rapporte régulièrement dans les nouvelles des suicides reliés au harcèlement. Et nous savons que la plupart des élèves sont témoins de harcèlement à l'école, et que nombreux sont ceux directement impliqués dans le harcèlement à un certain point dans une année scolaire donnée. 20 % des élèves – un enfant sur cinq dans presque chaque école – sont impliqués dans le harcèlement (en tant que tourmenteur, victime, ou les deux) sur une base hebdomadaire. Cela signifie que la vie de nombreux enfants est dérangée et marquée à jamais par le harcèlement.

Le harcèlement fait du tort aux enfants de presque chaque façon imaginable. Au minimum, il dérange leur apprentissage, puisque les enfants qui sont persécutés ont tendance à éviter l'école pour éviter le harcèlement. Le stress du harcèlement les amène à souffrir d'anxiété et de dépression, et il mine leurs sentiments de sécurité et de lien avec l'école. Nous savons maintenant que les enfants qui sont témoins de harcèlement sont aussi à risque de subir des effets négatifs sérieux, y compris le désintérêt envers l'école, l'école buissonnière, et par conséquent, des résultats scolaires inférieurs.

Le harcèlement se définit comme « un problème relationnel qui demande des solutions relationnelles » ( Cette nouvelle manière de considérer le harcèlement souligne les dynamiques relationnelles complexes et puissantes qui sous-tendent le harcèlement. Et elle fournit un appui logique irréfutable du rôle important que les adultes ont – éducateurs, parents, et dirigeants de la communauté – en intervenant dans des situations de harcèlement et en aidant tous les enfants à apprendre de meilleures façons d'interagir.

Une compréhension relationnelle du harcèlement est directement liée à l'appréciation grandissante du lien entre le climat de l'école et le harcèlement. Le climat de l'école est un concept complexe, mais peut généralement être séparé en quatre grandes dimensions (Cohen, McCabe, Michelli, & Pickeral, 2009) :

  1. La sécurité physique, sociale et émotionnelle
  2. La qualité de l'enseignement et de l'apprentissage
  3. Les interactions sociales dans la communauté de l'école
  4. Le bon entretien de l'école avec des ressources et des espaces adéquats.

mercredi 9 octobre 2013

Questions/answers dealing with attention deficit disorder, with or without hyperactivity (ADHD)

What are the symptoms of attention deficit disorder, with or without hyperactivity (ADHD)?

  • The child must display at least 6 attention deficit symptoms or 6 hyperactivity symptoms
  • The symptoms must persist for at least 6 months to a degree that is maladaptive and inconsistent with the child's developmental level
  • The symptoms must not be identifiable as due to another mental illness
  • The presence of the symptoms must significantly alter a variety of aspects of one's life (social, professional, school, etc.)
  • Finally, certain symptoms must be present before the age of 7.

A list of attention deficit symptoms follows:

  • Unable to pay attention to details, or makes careless mistakes on his/her school homework, work or other activities;
  • Often finds it difficult to maintain focus on the task at hand or during games;
  • Seems like he/she is not listening, when spoken to directly;
  • Does not conform to the rules and cannot complete his/her homework, house work or professional obligations (this is not due to difficult behavior, nor due to their incapacity to understand the rules);
  • Has a difficult time organizing his/her work or activities;
  • Avoids, is adverse to, or completes tasks against his/her wishes – ones that require sustained mental effort (like school work or homework);
  • Often loses his/her necessary tools to complete his/her work and/or activities (toys, workbooks, pencils, book or tools);
  • Is easily distracted by outside stimuli;
  • Is forgetful in his everyday life.

A list of hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms follows:

  • Fidgets with his/her hands or feet, or squirms in his/her seat;
  • Often gets up during class or in other situations that require him/her to be seated;
  • Runs or climbs everywhere, in situations where it is deemed inappropriate (for teens or adults, the symptom could be limited to feelings of subjective or inner restlessness);
  • Experiences difficulty remaining calm during play time;
  • Acts like he/she is "driven by a motor" or as though he/she is "mounted on springs"
  • Speaks too often.

mardi 8 octobre 2013

Parental Discipline

Learning how to discipline our children is one of the most important roles of parents, but also one of the most difficult. Healthy discipline for our children makes for a comfortable family environment. Human beings need to be supported in order to feel reassured. It lays the foundation for self-control in our lives. It helps your child to grow up happy and feel good in his/her skin. Positive and effective discipline teaches and guides the child. It doesn't just mean forcing a child to obey.

The way in which discipline is taught to children depends on their age, stage of development, personality and numerous other factors, but there are basic principles to help guide parents.

The Canadian Paediatric Society strongly discourages the use of physical punishment, including spanking.

What are the objectives of discipline?

  • Discipline protects your child from danger.
  • Discipline helps your child gain control and self-control.
  • Discipline helps your child develop a sense of responsibility.
  • Discipline helps to establish values.

What makes discipline effective?

  • Respect: Children should be able to respect the authority of their parents and the rights of others. If the discipline is tough and accompanied by insults, shouting and humiliation, a child will have difficulty respecting his/her mother or father, or trusting them.
  • Consistency: Discipline that is not consistent is confusing to children, whatever their age. If parents do not show consistency in how they apply discipline, the child will have difficulty in complying. Inconsistency, such as giving in to tantrums, can, in effect, reward the child for undesirable behaviour and encourage repetition.
  • Impartiality: The child must find the discipline to be fair. The consequences of their actions must be related to their behaviour. If your child throws food on the floor, help him/her clean up the mess. Make sure everything is cleaned before he/she can do other things. Once the mess is picked up, the matter is resolved.
  • You: As a parent, you have a unique bond with your child. If you teach your child discipline that is respectful, consistent and impartial, you will have positive and lasting effects on your child.

vendredi 4 octobre 2013

« Grand parleur, petit faiseur » ? Qu'en est il de la psychothérapie ?

Il n'est pas rare d'entendre les gens dire « parler sans agir ne vaut rien ».

Chez les PCY2, nous croyons – au contraire – que le dialogue est riche et bénéfique.

En consultant nos psychologues et professionnels en santé mentale, vous aller bénéficier : conversations bilatérales stimulantes avec des professionnels formés.

Notre approche conversationnelle, mais ciblée, en psychothérapie vise à aider nos clients à mieux se comprendre eux-mêmes, à déterminer des méthodes efficaces visant à mieux faire face aux défis dans leur vie / travail et à éliminer / réduire les émotions / comportements négatifs. Nos psychologues et psychothérapeutes se servent surtout de principes thérapeutiques cognitivo-comportementaux à court terme et s'efforcent d'obtenir les meilleurs résultats dans le plus court laps de temps possible (c.-à.-d.souvent entre 5 à 10 sessions).

Nous savons que les conversations bilatérales peuvent être difficiles mais elles s'avèrent souvent fructueuses dans nos vies. Nous croyons également que la compréhension de la dynamique d'un client nous permet de donner des conseils judicieux, profitables et informés.

Nous sommes des experts lorsqu'il est question de comprendre et d'apprendre de ce que les gens disent. Nous communiquons de façon franche, ouverte et directe. Et nous bâtissons un climat de confiance en faisant preuve d'intégrité et de crédibilité dans nos gestes et dans nos tâches.

...d'un intérêt et une attention immédiate à vos problèmes par la bonne équipe de psychologues.

Nos psychologues cliniques qualifiés et compatissants sont à votre service et se concentrent sur des résultats ciblés. Nous traitons les problèmes au moyen d'une approche à la fois efficace et efficiente.

Chez les PCY2, nous sommes ici pour répondre aux besoins du client – peu importe le problème – personnel et organisationnel. Notre approche axée sur le client nous permet de bâtir et de maintenir la satisfaction du client grâce aux conseils, aux produits et aux services que nous offrons et dont nos clients ont besoin.

"TALK IS CHEAP"? Does the same go for psychotherapy?

It's not uncommon to hear people say that "talk is cheap".

At Y2CP, we believe — on the contrary — that "dialogue is RICH".

By consulting our team of psychologists and mental health professionals, you will benefit from:

R — rewarding, two-way conversations with trained professionals.

Our conversational, yet targeted, approach to psychotherapy is focussed on helping our clients better understand themselves, identify effective methods to best tackle their life/work challenges, and eliminate/diminish negative emotions/behaviours. Our psychologists and psychotherapists rely mostly on short-term cognitive-behavioural therapeutic principles and strive to get the best results in the shortest time possible (i.e. often between 5 and 10 sessions).

We know that two-way conversations can be tough but they are often rewarding in our lives. And we believe comprehension of a client's dynamics enables us to give sound, beneficial and learned advice.

We are experts in understanding and learning from what others say. We communicate openly, honestly and directly. And we develop trust by displaying both integrity and credibility in our actions and assignments.

I — interest in your issues and immediate attention to them by the right team of psychologists.

Our qualified and caring clinical psychologists are at your service, and are focused on targeted results. Our approach to issues is both effective and efficient.

At Y2CP, we are here to respond to client's needs — no matter the issue — personal and organizational. Through our client-centred approach we build and maintain client satisfaction with the advice, products and services we offer and that our clients need.

vendredi 23 août 2013

Wondering if you are ready to retire? Eight questions to ask yourself...

The way we imagine and go through retirement will be different for each one of us, depending on our experiences, our interests, and our lifestyle. This period could be an opportunity to reflect upon and to make a new start in our lives. Dr. Yaniv Benzimra outlines eight questions we should ask ourselves to know if we are ready — psychologically — to undertake this important transition.

  1. Am I considering full or partial retirement?

    We are not required to go from an active professional life to full retirement; we can also choose to retire in stages. For example, over a period of five years we could go from five to three days, then to one day of work per week. This would allow us to spend some time away from work, to discover other activities, and to have some time to adapt to this new situation. We could also take time off from work for six months or a year to see how we would feel when we are not working. In certain cases, after retirement, we could work part time, for example as a consultant.

  2. How do I feel about my work?

    We should ask certain questions based on our past work year, for example: Do I like my work? Am I looking forward to not working? To what extent am I defined by my profession? Do I still have things to achieve professionally or have I already been around the block? We can also think about the social aspects of work and the structure that work gives us. We can ask: Am I ready to live without my social network and outside of a structured work environment?

  3. How do I feel about retirement?

    What are the advantages and disadvantages of a life without work? At the beginning of any new situation, there is a honeymoon period. But then routine sets in. After spending three to six months playing golf and travelling, think about what you are going to do during the next 15 or 20 years? In addition, am I feeling anxious about retiring or am I looking forward to it? If we have several projects lined up, it is obvious that this period will be more attractive. However, we should avoid feeling pressured by others.

  4. Have I looked at the state of my health and my energy level?

    Does my work create too much stress and health problems? Am I able to produce at the required level? Am I always tired, burned out by the time I arrive home? Do I have health problems? Can I pursue my career given my current state of health and energy level? We shouldn't wait until we are sick to stop working. We should do it as a preventative measure, so we can enjoy our retirement. We can also ask ourselves how we feel on weekends and when we are on vacation. If we are anxious to return to work, it's because our interest in it is still strong.

jeudi 30 mai 2013

Êtes-vous prêt à prendre votre retraite ?

8 questions à se poser...

La manière d'envisager et de vivre la retraite sera différente pour chacun d'entre nous, selon nos expériences, nos acquis et notre manière de vivre. Cette période de vie peut être l'occasion de se redéfinir et de prendre un nouveau départ. Le Dr Yaniv M. Benzimra propose ici huit questions à se poser pour savoir si on est psychologiquement prêt à effectuer cette transition importante.

La retraite ouvre un nouveau chapitre de vie et donne l'occasion de faire ce qu'on avait mis de côté. Les retraités ont en moyenne 33 % plus de temps libre. Qu'allez-vous faire de votre temps ?

Êtes-vous prête à prendre votre retraite ? - Article Le Lundi